Vegetation of the north of Russian Far East

A. N. Polezhaev



Distribution, configuration of vegetation zones and distribution of altitudinal belts on the North of the Russian Far East are characterized by their peculiarities caused by marginal position of the region on Eurasian continent, surrounding seas influence, altitude of the place. Areas types of vegetation complexes are established on the base of cartometric analysis of data-base of digital geobotanic large-scale map. The main regularities of differentiation of vegetation cover are revealed that are confirmed earlier known data.

Types of arctic vegetation complexes are distributed through the whole territory of the region. Correlation between boreal and arctic vegetation complexes are characterized by zonal peculiarities. North-east boundary of boreal vegetation types is the important botanic-geographic frontier. To the south of this frontier wide zone of ecotone is noticed. In this zone forest vegetation types and tundra vegetation existed side by side on the placors habitats.

The most distributed types are mountain vegetation type complexes with dominance of stone deserts, tundra siberian dwarf-pine. Vertical differentiation of mountain vegetation territories (taking in account zonalty) is reflected in subsequent change altitudinal belts where vegetation types complexes with dominance lichens mountain stone deserts, mountain tundra, siberian dwarf-pine (Pinus pumila), mountain open forests and larch (Larix cajanderi) and birch (Betula ermanii) forests are represented. Degree of revealing of vertical belts depends not only zonal conditions but also the altitude of the place above sea level, landscape peculiarities. Therefore separate belts, for example, mountain tundra, siberian dwarf-pine can be represented fragmentally. The stripe of ecotone usually can be noticed between alpine and subalpine belts.

Vertical vegetation belts are evidently connected with horizontal zones of vegetation cover. In tundra zone 2 altitudinal belts can be noticed – alpine that is represented by lichens stone deserts, and subalpine that is formed mostly by mountain tundra. Mountain siberian dwarf-pine play big role in forest zone in formation of subalpine belt altogether with mountain tundra. Lower on the slopes prostrate shrubs are changed by forest belt (subzone of Larch open forests and forests, subzone of birch open forests and forests) or exist side by side with zonal prostrate shrubs and subarctic tundra (subzone of prostrate shrubs).

Zonal vegetation complexes types (inhabit on placors and close to them habitats – plain low watershed areas, not steep mountain slopes, valleys between mountains, terraces near sea shore) are represented by arctic and subarctic tundra, siberian dwarf-pine (Pinus pumila), open forests and Larch (Larix cajanderi) and Birch (Betula ermanii) forests.

Mires are dominated among zonal-interzonal vegetation type complexes. Valley forests, shrubs, tundra are distributed quite widely. Transitional structures, for example tundra-bogs are referred to this group of vegetation complexes.

Vegetation that is transformed by strong stress factors (mostly natural and anthropogenic) is represented communities of plants formed under influence birds colonies, reindeer grazing, fire places, after technogenic disturbance as well as agricultural phytocoenosis.

Key words: cartographic model, meso-macro-megacombinations of vegetation, zonal types of combinations, geobotanical region, types of vegetation cover combinations, zone boundaries and subzones of vegetation, North of the Far East

Section: Articles

How to cite

Polezhaev A. N. 2013. Vegetation of the north of Russian Far East // Geobotanical mapping 2013. St. Petersburg. P. 48–67.